The sound of a buzzing colony of bees doesn’t inspire much confidence, does it? If you aren’t in love with these flying insects and all that they do for the environment, you might even consider them a pest. We’d advise against telling the bee in today’s story how much of a pest he is, however, as he might end up becoming quite the life-changing bee!
According to researchers on the topic of South African Cape Honeybees, cloning and condemning a colony through the use of a clone army of insects isn’t just possible, it happens all of the time!
Creating a Clone Army of Bees
If all this bee talk has you reaching for your Wicker Man DVD, we’d advise waiting just a little longer. This story isn’t as much about cult islands and crazy insects as it is about genetic flukes and how they can impact a colony. When African lowland honeybees experience the collapse of a hive, it is due in large part to a rival army of clone bees. This sounds wild, but it is actually true!
More grounded in science than science fiction, an army of bees of cloned female workers are possible thanks to the Apis Mellifera Capensis. The female workers of the South African Cape Honeybee are capable of replicating themselves completely. Diving into this fascinating story, researchers were able to trace a single honeybee through millions of replications and clones. This perpetual-cloning ability has allowed Cape honeybees to perpetually invade their lowland rivals, churning out multiple copies while refusing to contribute to the colony at all!
The reason that these bees are capable of cloning themselves is actually quite simple in the grand scheme of things. Unlike the Queen Bee or even most animals, female workers don’t have to shuffle their DNA during the egg-laying process. This allows worker bees to continually recreate their own perfect copy, a clone that is capable of reproducing while sidestepping all of the DNA shuffling that goes on in a conventional nest.
Benjamin Oldroyd is the lead author of the study we’ve been discussing, as well as a Professor of Behavioral Genetics at the University of Sydney. Speaking to Live Science, Oldroyd stated, “It’s insane; I’ve not heard of anything like this before – anywhere!”
Honeybee workers aren’t the only social insects that can reproduce asexually, so this news shouldn’t come as a complete surprise to researchers. Still, every time that worker bees create clones, they do so by reshuffling the genetic material from their four chromosomes, eventually going through a process we now know as recombination. With this reshuffling process, it guarantees that at least one parent offers genetically distinct future offspring.
While this process is smooth and efficient, the degradation of the genetic material is notable over time. As two chromones of the four are selected, more than one-third of genetic diversity is lost through each shuffling performance. This is where a queen steps into play, reproducing sexually to create a more diverse genetic workforce. Oldroyd goes on to say, “We have this tension between what’s good for the individual and what’s good for the society.”
Understanding the dangers and potential benefits imposed by genetic cloning, Oldroyd and his team delved into the clones as well as the honeybee workers and their queen. Genetic research revealed that the Queen had developed a process to bypass asexual reshuffling, limiting the loss of genetic diversity that had been occurring due to recombination.
Still, things are not completely well. Researchers note that Cape Bee Clones don’t perform any work around the colony, eventually aiding in its total collapse.
Doctor Runs To Hospital To Perform Surgery After Being Stuck In Dead Stop Traffic
Doctors are trained to deal with the fact that the decisions and procedures they handle can, at times, literally be the difference between someone living longer or passing away. It is one of the primary reasons doctors swear to the Hippocratic Oath, to do all they can to help preserve life and never do anything to the opposite of that. So, for Dr. Govind Nandakumar, when he needed to make it timely to a surgery he was scheduled to handle, there wasn’t going to be any ambiguity about it. He was going to be there, period.
Unfortunately, Bengaluru traffic isn’t conducive to timeliness. In fact, most times the congested city’s main traffic routes are a plugged-up mess of scooters, cars, busses, trucks and cabs all trying to get somewhere but going nowhere fast. When Nandakumar found himself in the middle of one such traffic jam, the decision was simple: get out and run. He wasn’t worried about his car; Nandakumar had a dedicated driver with the vehicle, so it would be taken care of. The bigger issue that mattered was getting across the 3 kilometers between where he was at and where the surgery was going to be shortly.
Trying to get to Manipal Hospital, Nandakumar knew no amount of waiting was going to free up the car. What would normally take 10 minutes to travel by car was clearly going to be more than four times that, according to his phone and Google map. So, on the street Nandakumar went, and he began running. Fortunately, he was already in good shape; Nandakumar regularly exercised, so the 3 km distance wasn’t going to be a hassle or extreme challenge for him. He was just going to be a bit sweaty getting into the medical offices.
The decision was the right one. Not only did Nandakumar make it in time for the surgery, he successfully took care of an emergency gastric surgery that had the potential to be terminal for the patient had it not been addressed immediately. In the big scheme of things, Manipal Hospital had enough staff who could have stepped in and pinch-hit for Nandakumar had he been late. However, the doctor’s dedication to his patients was paramount. At other times, the surgery could be at far smaller hospitals, and in those situations Nandakumar would be the only doctor available.
Nandakumar knows, despite his quick action in the latest scenario, the story doesn’t always work out so well. Patients are oftentimes trapped in ambulances stuck in traffic, close enough to know they are near, but the distance might as well be across the Grand Canyon for the patient sitting in the vehicle. In those instances, the doctor knows some cases have not ended so well; the traffic remains the curse of the modern world as a result.
Teen Builds a Better Poacher Trap￼￼
When traveling, people continue to be shocked by how prevalent poaching actually is, even in this day and age. That was the case for Anika Puri when she first saw widespread poaching product selling in black markets in India in the 2020s. The teenager was well aware that ivory was illegal and only came from illegally killing elephants, but there it was, plain as day, in the market stalls of what was Bombay at the time. Coming from Chappaqua, NY, the teen was going through a bit of a wakeup call by immersion in terms of what she was seeing and trying to reconcile with the ethics she had been taught at home about animal protection.
The sight triggered something in Anika, and she kept thinking about what was going on. Clearly, poachers were still successful doing their trade if the markets remained as full as they were in India. So, with the Internet and a bit of persistence, Anika was digging into the truth of the situation – elephant populations were continuing to drop in the 2000s instead of growing again, despite all the protection.
Anika was already a student of technology, and she realized there was a possible marriage between drones and technology, particularly in how animals versus humans moved across the landscape. They were vividly different in movement patterns as well as nuances. That made the traffic patterns identifiable, which gave Anika a functional idea. She began putting effort into building a software program that could both detect poachers as well as anticipate their movement patterns. Creating EISa, a software acronym for the program’s name, Elephant Savior, Anika built a prototype that tracked and spotted infrared signatures of humans versus elephants. And, with her research and field application, she was able to prove it could boost detection of poachers by 400 percent over other methods being used.
Even better, Anika’s solution was cost-effective. Normally, high-detail cameras cost thousands, with a lot of risk being put on a drone and potentially being lost on every flight. Instead, Anika’s prototype could be installed on a $250 FLIR camera, operated and run on the drone with a basic iPhone 6 mobile device. In essence, the teen built a low-cost poacher tracker that could fly, spot, and reliably perform in the field.
The development and prototype was so effective and impressive, Anika won the Peggy Scripps Award, as well as a $10,000 prize for her invention, competing against other high schoolers. She also scored the top title in the Regeneron International Science and Engineering Fair, in its category for environmental science and earth sciences.
Where did the idea come from? A lot of it was generated from a catalyst associated with a summer program at Stanford University when Anika had just finished her freshman year. There she got exposed to artificial intelligence, and the door in her mind opened up exponentially. She also realized the possibilities of data bias inherent in how technology works when designed by humans, and that gave her the edge in developing her poacher tracker program. One thing leads to another, and just the small movement of a pebble can create an avalanche of change. In Anika’s case, that pebble was her first visit to India and seeing the negative impacts of poaching. From there, the story is history now.
An Eagle Surrogate Mother for a Falcon￼￼
When eagles snap up something small, there is a 99.999% chance it’s going to be dinner. The raptor is an agile, winged predator, focused on either finding a mate, finding a meal, or raising eagle chicks. So, when an eagle scooped up an errant baby falcon, there was no question from observers, as the prey was dropped in the eagle’s nest, it was being observed that it was going to be the next meal for the resident baby eagles, torn apart by the mother and fed to the chicks. However, something weird happened next.
For a moment, the mother eagle hesitated. And in that moment, the grown predator decided to adopt the baby falcon as its own instead of having it for dinner. This Canadian miracle was literally caught on camera because the eagle’s nest was being observed with a positioned camera and live streaming on the Internet. As a result, a slew of observers watched an event happen that never should have occurred.
The whole crazy matter was confirmed by Pam MacCartney, a long-term volunteer in conservation who helped with the eagle nest observation and protection of the eagles on Gabriola Island. She herself watched the event play out during one of her shifts, shocked as it turned out to be a positive versus the predictable natural end for the prey. Researchers suspect that the recent immediate loss of one of the eagle chicks right after being born may have had something to do with the eagle mother’s change of heart. When the baby falcon scuttled about, the mother eagle watched, and so did her other chick. There was no attack from her or the pair of eagle chicks in the nest already. Within a half day, all of them were acting as if everything was normal and the falcon was just another eagle chick.
The eagle family has been studied for weeks, acting in every other aspect as a regular eagle’s nest without an exception.
Researchers have confirmed this odd adoption isn’t the first of its kind. In fact, it has been seen previously by researchers who’ve been in ornithology science for decades. Occasionally, eagles adopt other raptors, but it is extremely rare. The chicks have continued to grow as a complete family, and now they are all learning how to fly. Eventually, they will all separate, but the adopted falcon will definitely be unique. And it might even find an eagle for a mate.
The Return of Luigi the Wayward Dog￼
Sitting on the northern border of the U.S. with Canada is a zone called the Boundary Waters. It’s wilderness, pure and simple. Huge forests span large geographic areas, and it’s very, very easy for a person to get lost. If involving a dog, a search might have better luck looking for a needle in a haystack, as the saying goes.
Luigi, a big black fun ball of canine at six years, managed to become the subject of a search that lasted almost a month. The doofy dog somehow figured out how to survive and not get seriously hurt or attacked during that whole time, as well as finding his way back to his owner, one Zane Brunette. How Luigi ended up in the forests in the first place started with a camping trip.
Brunette brought his dog along with him for a bit of exposure to the wilderness. Unfortunately, the dog’s curiosity got the better of the canine during the stay, and Luigi got separated within the first day. Brunette thinks the trigger was actually caused by some characters they came across on the Sawbill Trail who seemed a bit fishy to begin with. Chocking up the possibility of a potential dognapping motive, Luigi was probably lured, and Brunette never had enough time to figure out what happened before Luigi was gone.
Brunette spent hours the first day hollering and looking for the dog. Logically, the owner knew his dog had disappeared, but emotionally, he just kept going until becoming exhausted looking for Luigi. The initial search went on for a number of days, with fliers posted, and asking questions of anyone in the area who might have seen the canine. Unfortunately, there was no hint or sign of Luigi. Ultimately, Brunette had to leave.
At one point, a resort owner thought he saw the dog and called Brunette. That location was at least 45 miles distant from where the campsite had been. Clearly, the dog had traveled or been moved. However, the owner turned out to actually have the dog, as Brunette answered and got details, and he hopped in his vehicle to go see. At the resort, Brunette immediately called out to Luigi, and the dog responded. There was no question who his owner was.
Looking the dog over after the initial excitement, Brunette was amazed how Luigi had stayed in such good condition. There was no sign of ticks, serious injuries, scratches, animal fights or anything to show the stay in the wilderness had been hard except for weight loss. The dog had clearly not eaten during the time he was gone, losing a solid 15 pounds of mass. Now, Luigi is busy recuperating and putting those pounds back on, but the whole event still has Brunette a bit jittered.
Suspecting the dog thieves realized the dog was older than they thought, Luigi was probably dumped after a while and left on his own. Given the canine’s disposition to being around people, Luigi made his way to whoever seemed friendly enough to give him water and food. Someone made the connection to Brunette’s lost dog fliers, and Luigi got found again.
A Blood-Clotting Gel Created from Deadly Snake Venom￼
Biology has advanced well beyond just the study of nature and its huge portfolio of animals and plants. Now, another driving demand for research involves finding ways to utilize natural products for medicine and body care as well. One of the latest products now starting to come through development is a natural gel that helps stop serious bleeding, a serious cure for folks who are anemic or badly injured.
Researchers based in programs of study in Australia created a new gel that literally helps blood clot in under 60 seconds. The University of Queensland research has ground-breaking promise, especially in the world of trauma, where paramedics have to act quickly to help prevent a patient from bleeding out on the way to the hospital from serious injuries. The key ingredient for the new gel comes from Australia’s own biological contribution, the eastern brown snake. This particular creature is unique to the southern hemisphere. However, the product also needs the venom from the saw-scaled viper, found in Africa as well as Asia. Mixed together correctly, the snake venom protein elements work together on blood, creating a bonding sealant.
The creation of the blood-clotting gel is a game-changer. More than one out of three bad trauma cases that end in mortality happen due to bleeding out. There simply isn’t enough time to stop the wound before the patient expires. In combat zones, the need is extreme. Tourniquets slow things partially to minutes, but patients are still lost at a high rate from blood loss and shock. Bandages do nothing to help blood clots to stop the flow. They just absorb it and block the flow until saturated. The body itself is the primary blockage if it can have enough leverage to clot. If the body can get the valuable time, it can form a fibrous clot at the point of loss, and healing can begin within hours.
The pairing of the snake venoms is both amazing as well as intentional. One helps the blood clot and plug up when applied. The other bonds and strengthens the clot material, making it stronger and able to withstand internal pressure versus breaking again. Both are critical to stopping a massive blood loss wound like that in an artery.
Normally, such snake venom injected into the body by a snake would be harmful, even deadly. Local tissue starts to immediately starve and swell from clotting and blood circulation loss, which can become critical with a snake bite. The difference between the gel versus a snakebit is the degree of application. The gel is a far smaller amount of both snakes’ venoms, which doesn’t inhibit the patient’s circulation.
The speed of assistance is amazing. In tests on lab animals, gel-assisted clots formed solid in about a minute. Normal blood clotting could take as long as eight minutes. Most people will bleed out in less than three for comparison. More notably, the gel worked even when being applied to blood that had common blood thinner chemicals mixed in.
While not available on the direct market due to required medical product testing, many expect that Queensland’s creation will be a huge help in the medical world, and its approval is just a matter of time. The application potential is multiple, ranging from lacerations to serious burns and bodily trauma, and the publication of the tests so far is raising eyebrows and interest worldwide.
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